You can read the report itself on Evans and the Sand Creek Massacre here and view recommendations for change here. The recommendations are mainly about how to recruit students and faculty drawn from the Cheyennes, Arapahos and other tribes as well as organize faculty exchanges with community colleges on the reservations, join the Cheyenne and Arapaho Spiritual Healing Run on the 150th anniversary of the Massacre in late November, and educate all of us about Sand Creek. See here.
You can hear an 8 minute interview by Maeve Conren with me on KGNU's morning magazine starting at minute 17 here. Several of us were interviewed for a fine story by Alyssa Landry in Indian Country Today; Nancy Wadsworth, our committee chair, has spoken with 9 news and Colorado Matters ; and you can find a hard-hitting interview by Susan Greene, who had read both reports, with me, "A Founding Amnesia," from the Colorado Independent - all below.
The authors of the report hope that this will begin a longer discussion and process of education based on evidence about Evans' role and a recognition of what the Massacre has meant, both for descendants and for the settlers who stole the land and established a Founding Amnesia - on the official story, "Evans founded universities"; he did not crusade for war against the Cheyennes and Arapahos, celebrate their massacre (in 1884 he spoke in retrospect of the "great benefit to the people of Colorado of the so-called Massacre" which "rid us of the roaming Plains Indians"). No one was in Colorado before; no massacre in 1864 lies at the foundation of this city and state...
In my interview on KGNU this morning, I also emphasized the desirability of renaming over time some of the mountains, towns and professorships which were involved in the mistaken lionization of John Evans. The descendants of the Cheyennes and Arapahos have rightly emphasized that renaming should not contribute to the forgetting (the re-Amnesiazition, one might say) of the history. The state senate, at their request, put a plaque about the massacre beside the statue in front of the State Capitol which celebrates Sand Creek as a battle (one of four aggressions by American soldiers against indigenous people under Chivington - all with his orders to shoot to kill indigenous people on sight - in 1864) and praises Evans and Chivington.
But keeping the name, accompanied by an historical warning, is not possible for the Evans professorships (though, if the University ultimately agrees to a change, a story of how and why the name of the professorship will be/was changed might be in the program and speech accompanying each new award); it is probably also not possible for Mt. Evans or Evans Blvd. or Evanston, Illinois. Discussions about how to recognize and move forward from this painful heritage are very important.
"Indian Country Today
This is one of the signs at the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site near Eads, Colorado.
for photos, see here.
Report Says Evans Should be Held Responsible for His Part in the Sand Creek Massacre
The facts are irrefutable.
By nightfall on November 29, 1864, as many as 200 Cheyenne and Arapaho lay dead, their bodies horribly mutilated and their blood watering the banks of southeastern Colorado’s Sand Creek.
Two-thirds of those killed were women, children and elders. All were victims of the Sand Creek Massacre, slaughtered by U.S. soldiers in an attack later called the “foulest and most unjustifiable crime in the annals of America.”
The camp was peaceful, the massacre unprovoked. Soldiers led by Colonel John Chivington ignored Chief Black Kettle, who raised an American flag and a white cloth signaling peace. They shot defenseless women and children and took scalps as prizes. One soldier killed a pregnant woman, cut her womb open, removed her unborn child and scalped it.
In the following weeks and months, the U.S. government took responsibility for the massacre. What remained unclear for a century and a half, however, was the role of John Evans, governor and superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Colorado Territory.
On the eve of the sesquicentennial anniversary of the massacre, the University of Denver has released a report claiming Evans should be held “culpable” for the incident.
“Culpability entails moral responsibility that both falls short of and goes beyond criminal responsibility,” said Richard Clemmer-Smith, a professor of anthropology at the University of Denver and one of the report authors. “Maybe there was no criminal activity on his part, but there certainly was intentionality.”
The report is the result of a year-long study conducted by a volunteer committee comprising professors, students and descendants of massacre survivors. It traces Evans’ steps leading up to the massacre and the federal inquiry afterward that led to Evans’ resignation as territorial governor.
Evans, a physician and railroader, co-founded Northwestern University in 1851 and the University of Denver in 1864. He held leadership roles at both universities and gave hundreds of thousands of dollars to each. Now, both universities are taking a closer look at him—and at the blood money used to fund the schools.
Denver’s report comes on the heels of a similar report released by Northwestern in May. That report, authored by an eight-member research committee, concluded that Evans did not help plan the massacre and likely had no prior knowledge of it. Northwestern’s report also suggests that Evans would have opposed the attack had he been aware of it.
Denver scholars disagree. After reviewing Evans’ own proclamations, along with statements from soldiers and Natives involved in the massacre and results of the federal inquiry, the committee concluded that Evans should bear “a significant level of culpability” for the massacre.
“Evans’ actions and influence, more than those of any other political official in Colorado Territory, created the conditions in which the massacre was highly likely,” the report states. “Evans abrogated his duties as superintendent, fanned the flames of war when he could have dampened them, cultivated an unusually interdependent relationship with the military and rejected clear opportunities to engage in peaceful negotiations with the Native peoples under his jurisdiction.”
Specifically, Evans issued a proclamation forcing all peaceful Indians in the region to report to reservations or be considered hostile. A second proclamation issued one month before the massacre invited white settlers to indiscriminately “kill and destroy … all hostile Indians.” He also relentlessly petitioned the federal government for more troops on the ground, falsely claiming an Indian war was at hand.
Evans was not present at the massacre, nor did he give an order for the men to attack, Clemmer-Smith said. He did, however, set the stage for it to happen.
“Those actions reflect some degree of responsibility for the massacre of peaceful and innocent Indians by a group of men who were led to believe that that’s what they should do,” he said. “The only variable is that they did it against Indians who were not hostile. So they violated Evans’ instructions, but on the other hand, he never made clear how the hostile Indians were to be distinguished from the friendly ones.”
Denver’s purpose was not to put Evans on trial, said Nancy Wadsworth, associate professor of political science and chair of the John Evans Study Committee. Its goal was to assess Evans’ legacy and understand him in a way the university never has.
An important element in the discussions was to invite descendants of massacre survivors, Wadsworth said.
“One of the things they talked about was how the massacre was remembered in their families: who was there, who died,” she said. “These are living communities that have been impacted, real communities who experience these memories as if they were yesterday.”
Released with the report was a list of 22 recommendations to help the community confront the past and move forward. The list includes measures to encourage public dialogue, memorialize the incident, provide better opportunities to Native student and professors and make changes to curriculum.
Although the recommendations are robust, they will always fall short, said Alan Gilbert, the John Evans professor at the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver.
“There is nothing that will adequately remedy this,” said Gilbert, who helped author the report. “To say that one could heal or change beyond a certain point is to deceive oneself. What we can do is recognize and name what was being done by leaders of the university, by the governor, by others.”
One thing Gilbert would like to see is the myriad things named after Evans replaced with more appropriate names. For example, his job title.
“We have Mount Evans, Evans professors, Evans Boulevard,” he said. “This title is a brand, not an honor, something seared into our flesh that needs to be changed.”
Viki Eagle, a Lakota graduate student, wants to see students learn the truth about Evans and the tribes who once thrived in Colorado. She served as the graduate representative on the John Evans Study Committee.
“Not many people recognize the history,” she said. “Most people don’t know the history of Native people or John Evans. If we have education, we can have healing and moving forward.”
The university likely will consider all the recommendations in forthcoming meetings. At the root of healing, however, is the concept of responsibility, said Billy Stratton, assistant English professor and one of the authors of the report.
“No one likes flimsy declarations or apologies without substance,” he said. “We need to acknowledge Sand Creek for what it was—an extremely ugly and horrific time in our history. Because it’s ugly, we want to move on without acknowledging it when we really need to find things to do concretely to promote healing.”
"‘A Founding Amnesia’
DU Report: John Evans, University founder and Colorado’s former governor, ‘culpable’ for state’s most notorious massacre.
November 04, 2014
‘A Founding Amnesia’
Anyone with a basic knowledge about Colorado history knows the shame surrounding the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre.
But what hasn’t been recognized is the culpability of one of the central figures behind the attack – Colorado’s own governor at the time, John Evans.
A scathing report released Monday by the University of Denver – which Evans founded – finds he created the conditions that led to the killing of members of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes who were living under the protection of the U.S. Army on the eastern plains.
The massacre at Fort Lyon 150 years ago this month killed what scholars say were over 200 women, children, elderly and infirmed tribal members. Sand Creek is one of the most infamous events in the Indian Wars and perhaps the deepest scar in Colorado’s history.
Historians long have condemned U.S. Colonel John Chivington as a “monster in human form” for launching the attack. And rightly so. Chivington was the killer on the spot. He and his men slaughtered tribal members, mutilated their bodies – some sexually – and then brought heads and other body parts back to Denver as battle trophies.
DU’s report finds that Evans had just as much blood on his hands by manufacturing a war he said the tribes had waged against whites.
Aside from his role as governor, he was appointed by the federal government as superintendent of Indian affairs in Colorado. That job entailed keeping peace with the tribes during the Civil War to avoid a war on the second front. Instead, the report reveals, Evans shot-gunned fear-mongering letters to officials throughout the state. He incited Coloradans to shoot as vigilantes any Indian they ran across and to take his or her property as their own.
“Chivington would not have carried out orders without Evans preparing the way,” said DU professor Alan Gilbert. “The lionization of Evans is the opposite of the truth. Evans launched the extermination of Cheyenne and Arapahoe in Colorado and he should not be honored for it.”
For Gilbert, Evans’ lionization hits close to home. Gilbert is the John Evans professor at DU’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies. The professorship named after the school’s founder is the highest honor bestowed on scholars both at DU and at Northwestern University, which Evans also helped found.
Evanston, Illinois, where Northwestern is located, is named after the physician and railroad promoter who became the second governor of the Territory of Colorado in 1862. Denver’s Evans Avenue and Mount Evans – the twelfth highest of Colorado 14ers — also bear his name.
“Denver and Northwestern have pretended that Evans was a wonderful man and ignored these intense brutal facts,” Gilbert said.
He had suspicions about the man after whom his professorship was named since being awarded the distinction in 2000. About two years ago,a group of Native American students at Northwestern started studying Evans’ record. Study committees were formed at both universities, each of which released reports this year. The University of Denver inquiry led to a series of meetings with descendants of tribal members killed at Sand Creek.
Northwestern’s report, released in May, found that, although there is “no known evidence indicates that John Evans helped plan the Sand Creek Massacre or had any knowledge of it in advance,” he “helped create a situation that made the Sand Creek Massacre possible.”
“John Evans’s conduct after the Sand Creek Massacre reveals a deep moral failure that warrants condemnation. While he denied any role in the massacre, he refused to acknowledge, let alone criticize, what had happened, even going so far as to defend and rationalize it. Regardless of Evans’s degree of culpability in failing to make every possible effort to protect the Cheyennes and Arapahos when they were most vulnerable, his response to the Sand Creek Massacre was reprehensibly obtuse and self-interested. His recollections of the event displayed complete indifference to the suffering inflicted on Cheyennes and Arapahos.”
DU’s report went a step further, saying Evans was directly “culpable” for the massacre.
“Evans’s actions and influence, more than those of any other political official in Colorado Territory, created the conditions in which the massacre was highly likely,” it reads. “Evans abrogated his duties as superintendent, fanned the flames of war when he could have dampened them, cultivated an unusually interdependent relationship with the military, and rejected clear opportunities to engage in peaceful negotiations with the Native peoples under his jurisdiction. Furthermore, he successfully lobbied the War Department for the deployment of a federalized regiment, consisting largely of undertrained, undisciplined volunteer soldiers who executed the worst of the atrocities during the massacre.”
Gilbert likens teaching under Evans’ name to teaching under the names of Confederate or Ku Klux Klan leaders if he worked at a university in the South. DU, he says, has operated under what he calls “a founding amnesia” since its inception in 1864, the year of the massacre.
“I knew about genocide against Native Americans, but I hadn’t been aware of how shocking this is,” he said. “Now I feel like it’s a sort of burning thing in my soul and I have to do something about it.”
DU is behind Gilbert [not necessarily on the issue of naming].
“We offer this report as an initial step to promote empathy and healing, for those of us who have inherited this complex legacy, but also for the Arapaho and Cheyenne people, who have displayed an active sense of presence in the face of victimization and, lest we forget, on whose ancestral lands our campus sits,” reads the executive summary.
In a letter to the “campus community” Monday, Chancellor Rebecca Chopp announced DU will hold public forums to discuss the history of Sand Creek and “consult with tribes regarding memorial plans.”
“The Sand Creek Massacre is a tragic event in the history of the University, the city of Denver and the state of Colorado,” Chopp wrote. “We embrace our obligation to learn about it, to learn from it, and to carry those lessons forward as we continue to realize our vision of being a great private university dedicated to the public good.”
The University rushed to release the report before the massacre’s 150th anniversary on Nov. 29. Its findings may be lost in the news cycle – a day before today’s mid-term election.
As Gilbert sees it, the truth about Evans resonates as Coloradans choose — among other elected officials — their governor today.
“What we see here is the horrors that a so-called good man can commit,” he said. “We all ought to consider that there are not only the possibilities of doing slight harm as governor but, as the early history of Colorado shows, the possibilities of doing massive, ghastly harm.”
[Image detail of "The Sand Creek Massacre" by Robert Lindneaux.]"
"DU report concludes culpability for Sand Creek Massacre
Maya Rodriguez, KUSA\9 News 4:52 p.m. MST November 3, 2014
The entrance to the Sand Creek Massacre Historic Site (Photo: Manny Sotelo, KUSA)
For all photographs, see here.
Camp Weld Council, Denver, Sept. 28. 1864
Major players A handwritten letter by Captain Silas Soule, who refused Colonel John Chivington, who lead a 700-man force during
Photo taken years later of Gov. John Evans.
Photo taken in 1862, before Gov. John Evans even traveled
Governor Evans' handwritten and published material
Photo of the U.S. commissions in consul with Arapaho
An artist's rendering of the attack at Sand Creek.
A look at the headline in the Rocky Mountain News before
The Rocky Mountain News the day of the Sand Creek Massacre.
KUSA- It's a massacre that echoes across time.
As we approach the 150th anniversary of the Sand Creek Massacre this month, the University of Denver is taking a closer look at the role its founder had in that bloodshed: Colorado territorial Governor John Evans.
Their conclusion: Evans had a major role in what happened and is culpable for the massacre, both in his role as territorial governor and as then-superintendent of Indian Affairs.
"That means that the decisions he made as Governor, and as Superintendent, had a huge impact on what was happening between settlers and Native Americans in the territory at the time," said Nancy Wadsworth, DU associate professor of Political Science and one of the members of the committee who authored the report.
DU report concludes culpability for Sand Creek Massacre. 9NEWS at 4 p.m. 11/03/14.
On Nov. 29, 1864, 700 federal soldiers slaughtered more than 160 Native Americans, many of them women and children, in in Kiowa County, on the Eastern Plains. The Native Americans were there because they were seeking a peace treaty from the government.
"That peace offering had been rejected, but the tribes had been put under the command of these military officials, who the tribes were told were told would protect them until an agreement could be reached," Wadsworth said. "So, they were under the protection of the American flag."
Col. John Chivington and a group of volunteer soldiers carried out the massacre. It was fueled by mounting tensions, which the report squarely blames on Gov. Evans. The report also points to two proclamations Gov. Evans issued in the months before the massacre, which created the atmosphere that led to the slaughter.
"It authorizes citizens to attack all hostile Indians, though there was no criteria laid out to distinguish between friendly and hostile Indians-- and to take their property," Wadsworth said. "That they were authorized to take any property or belongings they found as their own and that they would be supplied by the government with guns and also compensated for this. [Evans] essentially created a system of vigilante justice."
By all historical accounts, the massacre was brutal.
"The extent of atrocities committed on the bodies of men, women, children, babies and the infirm, was nothing like Americans had seen in other massacres," Wadsworth said. "Scalps were taken, body parts were carried into Denver."
The following year, in 1865, two Congressional Committees and one military commission, condemned the massacre. Evans was forced to resign as territorial governor. Now, the DU committee hopes that in taking a critical look at the massacre, they embrace the complicated history of the man who helped open their university, just a few weeks after the massacre.\
"We will work through the report and its recommendations, and we will review ideas and suggestions from a variety of groups and individuals," said University of Denver Chancellor Rebecca Chopp. "The Sand Creek Massacre is a tragic event in the history of the University, the city of Denver and the state of Colorado. We embrace our obligation to learn about it, to learn from it, and to carry those lessons forward."
For a look at the more than 100 page report, go to http://bit.ly/1DTGUg6
Raw video of documents and images associated with the Sand Creek Massacre. 9NEWS WEB EXTRA. 11/03/14."
Report: Early Colo. governor has 'significant level of culpability' in Sand Creek Massacre
BY DAVID HILL NOV 3, 2014
LISTEN Audio: Nancy Wadsworth speaks with Ryan Warner
As the University of Denver marks its 150th anniversary, the school’s founder, John Evans, is getting a lot of attention. He became governor of the Colorado Territory in 1862 after being appointed by his close friend, President Abraham Lincoln. Mount Evans bears his name. So does Evans Avenue in Denver.
Evens even helped found another prominent educational institution, Northwestern University, in Illinois.
But none of these accomplishments are what Evans is being recalled for now. While he was governor, U.S. soldiers, led by Col. John Chivington, killed more than 160 Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians. Most of them were women and children. It’s considered one of the darkest chapters in Colorado history. There were several investigations into the Nov. 29, 1864, massacre, including one at the congressional level that declared that Chivington "surprised and murdered, in cold blood, the unsuspecting men, women, and children on Sand Creek."
As for Evans, he also held the position of Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the territory. Though he didn’t take part in the attack, did he create the climate that made it possible, perhaps even inevitable? If so, how should he be remembered at the University of Denver?
For the last year, a group of professors, students, and tribal representatives have been grappling with such questions. Their report, issued Monday, finds Evans had a “pattern of neglect of his treaty-making duties, his leadership failures, and his reckless decision-making,” which combine to demonstrate a “significant level of culpability for the Sand Creek Massacre.”
The report asserts that Evans’ culpability is “comparable in degree to that of Col. John Chivington.”
“Our hope,” says DU associate political science professor Nancy Wadsworth, who chaired the John Evans Study Committee, “is that this inquiry will generate courageous dialogue and engagement, and kind of change the way we memorialize this event in the state and the way we understand the culpability of … of a very prominent founder in the Colorado Territory.”
Northwestern University conducted its own report, which was released in May."
"The Daily Northwestern
University of Denver finds John Evans ‘central’ to conditions for massacre
Jeanne Kuang, Campus Editor
November 4, 2014 •
The University of Denver’s John Evans Study Committee released a report Monday that finds Evans, the founder of both DU and Northwestern, “deeply culpable” in the Sand Creek Massacre, an 1864 event in which American soldiers killed about 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho people.
The DU report disagrees “strongly” with portions of NU’s own report on the topic, released in May, which concluded Evans was not directly involved in the planning of the massacre and would have opposed the attack. The NU report also said the University has ignored Evans’ “significant moral failures,” including his refusal to criticize the attack.
Evans, who was governor and superintendent of Indian affairs in the Colorado Territory where the massacre occurred, has been the subject of scrutiny from committees at both universities since 2013.
NU’s John Evans Study Committee was appointed by Provost Dan Linzer in February 2013 after students pushed the University to address its history. An NU faculty member then contacted a DU colleague asking about similar efforts at the school. DU faculty members then formed their own study committee with the support of the university’s administration, according to the DU report.
DU’s report, which focused on events leading up to the massacre, concluded that Evans shared responsibility because he failed to promote peace, claimed Native American tribes were planning to fight with white settlers in the region and directly influenced conditions in the territory that made attacks on Native Americans appear justified.
Nancy Wadsworth, chair of the committee and a DU political science professor, told The Daily the DU committee “defined culpability in a broader sense whereas Northwestern defined culpability in a narrow instrumental sense” that focused more on whether Evans knew about the attack or co-conspired in it with Col. John Chivington, the military official who planned and carried out the massacre.
“If we pull back to the broader question of who was the top official, in the top civil and political authority in the territory,” Wadsworth said, “what were the patterns of action and decisions that led up to the massacre? We believe there’s more than enough evidence to demonstrate that John Evans shared culpability for the fact that the massacre occurred.”
The DU report disagreed with the NU report’s claims that Evans would have opposed the massacre if he had known it was being planned. The DU committee argued in its report that the “histrionic and inflammatory verbiage” Evans used in his letters indicated his “keen enthusiasm for a ruthless, ‘punishing’ winter attack on Indians.”
NU’s report stated that “John Evans … was one of several individuals who, in serving a flawed and poorly implemented federal Indian policy, helped create a situation that made the Sand Creek Massacre possible.” In Monday’s report, the DU committee said Evans, holding the top political office in the territory at the time, had more responsibility in “creating the conditions in which the massacre was possible and even likely.”
“It is all the actions he undertook and the attitude that he maintained before the massacre that not only reflected ‘indifference to the suffering inflicted on Cheyennes and Arapahos,’ but promoted the suffering,” the DU committee stated in its report.
Wadsworth said Evans’ responsibility in the massacre is “different in character but comparable in degree” to actually planning the attack.
She emphasized the DU report was not meant to prompt an “adversarial relationship” between the university and NU. The DU committee, upon reading NU’s report in May, decided to focus its own report less on parts of history NU covered, such as Evans’ biography and career, she said.
“(We) focused on the areas where we think that the evidence suggests different conclusions,” Wadsworth said.
At NU, public interest about the John Evans Study Committee’s work led to the fall 2013 creation of the Native American Outreach and Inclusion Task Force to recommend actions the University should take in light of the committee’s findings.
The task force consists of students, faculty and administrators and is expected to release its report this month, which will coincide with the 150th anniversary of the Sand Creek Massacre.
November also marks Native American Heritage Month, during which the Native American and Indigenous Student Alliance plans to hold various events commemorating the anniversary and discussing Evans’ role in the massacre.
NAISA commented on DU’s report Monday on the group’s Facebook page, saying the new report “offers a humanizing narrative.”
"Denver University Magazine
University releases report on founder’s role in Sand Creek Massacre
Posted November 3, 2014 at 6:35 am
One hundred and fifty years ago, on Nov. 29, 1864, at an area known as Sand Creek, near the present-day town of Eads, Colo., a group of U.S. militia attacked and killed an estimated 160 women, children and elderly members of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. The massacre occurred when John Evans, founder of the University of Denver and of Northwestern University in Illinois, was serving both as governor of the Colorado Territory and as territorial superintendent of Indian affairs.
Over the past year, the University of Denver has been learning about and commemorating the event and its relationship — past, present and future — to the University. The University has sponsored public lectures, a documentary screening, exhibits and special healing ceremonies in addition to our annual Spring Powwow and Diversity Summit.
The coming weeks bring additional opportunities to learn and engage, including:
A public lecture by Henrietta Mann, noted Southern Cheyenne scholar and elder, from 10:30–noon on Nov. 11 (Anderson Academic Commons, Loft)
“Writing Survivance: Indigenous Voices on the 150th Anniversary of Sand Creek” on Nov. 13 and 14 (Nov. 13, 6-8 p.m., Sturm Hall 134; Nov. 14, 4 p.m., Sturm Hall 379, and 6 p.m,. Sturm Hall 254)
The Sand Creek Massacre Spiritual Healing Run, a state-sponsored event scheduled for Nov. 29–Dec. 3
More than a year ago, a group of 11 DU faculty members organized the University of Denver John Evans Study Committee and conducted an independent inquiry regarding Evans’ role in the massacre. Today, the committee released its report. (Northwestern issued its report regarding the massacre last spring; it is available here.)
The DU report focuses on events directly leading up to the massacre at Sand Creek and compares Evans’ leadership as superintendent of Indian affairs with that of those holding similar positions in Utah and Nevada. The DU report concludes that John Evans was culpable for the Sand Creek Massacre.
“That is a quite different finding from what appears in the Northwestern University report,” says University of Denver Chancellor Rebecca Chopp. “There is much to be learned from reading and discussing these reports together.”
The DU committee made a number of recommendations for the University’s consideration. Some that are currently being pursued include:
Create public forums to discuss the history of Sand Creek
Support the Sand Creek Massacre Spiritual Healing Run
Consult with tribes regarding memorial plans
“As a community, we will work through the report and its recommendations, and we will review ideas and suggestions from a variety of groups and individuals,” Chopp says. “The Sand Creek Massacre is a tragic event in the history of the University, the city of Denver and the state of Colorado. We embrace our obligation to learn about it, to learn from it, and to carry those lessons forward as we continue to realize our vision of being a great private university dedicated to the public good.”