Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Governor John Evans and Sand Creek, documents 1 and 2



Much of Denver and the surrounding area is devoted to a celebration of John Evans, the former territorial governor appointed by as well as a friend of Abraham Lincoln. They were both Republicans from Illinois and involved in the expansion of the railway. Lincoln famously commissioned the extension of the Transcontinental Railway across the country; among other things, the new railroad would run through Sand Creek...

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Evens was also a Methodist, and founded Northwestern University and Garrett Biblical Institute in Evanston, Illinois. The latter place is named for him as are the John Evans professors at Northwestern and the University of Denver. He was also a founder of the Colorado Seminary (on the original board of Trustees, along with John Chivington and Ralph Byers, editor and publisher of the Rocky Mountain News). The seminary became the University of Denver and the Iliff School of Theology.

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In Denver, there is Mt. Evans, Evans Blvd, Evans Chapel, and the west-facing plaque, where Evans is celebrated along with Chivington, on the 1909 monument in front of the State Capitol, purportedly to an anonymous Civil War soldier, which lists, as if it were not a massacre, "the Sand Creek battle." See here

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Downing, another long street which intersects Evans, is named for one of the participants in the massacre, also a founder of Colorado Springs.

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On July 18,1865, Secretary of State William Seward demanded Evans resignation because as Governor of the Colorado territory, he assigned Chivington to lead the "the hundred daystars," the 100 day volunteers (sadly, the citizens of Denver) who carried out the massacre. The letter refers to an urgent necessity for Evans' resignation in "the public interest." For the original handwritten document, see here.

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This fact alone, underpinned by federal hearings which revealed publicly the particular barbarity of this slaughter of Arapahoe and Cheyenne who had made peace with the United States (Black Kettle had a white flag and an American flag up over his tent as Silas Soule, a Union officer who refused to have his men fire, testified), should have been sufficient to prevent the memorialization of John Evans in Mountain, State Capitol Plaque, Chapel (at the University of Denver), Township (Illinois), distinguished professorships, and Boulevard, inter alia.

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Only denial and blindness (a racism so deep it has erased the memory of those it murdered and evicted) make so blaring a celebration possible.

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For Evans in Colorado is a giant figure, bigger than any national leader like Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln or the Roosevelts.

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The intensity of the lionization of Evans signals the uneasiness that underlies it.

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Had Goebbels or Eichmann been a great educator, should that have overridden the Holocaust in Germany?

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The German government has many memorials to the victims. It is a testimony to trying to heal (this will take hundreds of years...).

Germany does not celebrate the leaders who perpetrated it.

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If Seward (then Secretary of State for Andrew Johnson) removed Evans for this special crime, why is he today so celebrated in Denver and Illinois?

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I will trace briefly the context before assessing two documents from Evans. This will be the first of several posts on Evans. In addition, we now have committees, created through protest by indigenous students and actions of concerned people at Northwestern and the University of Denver. See here. Many of us know that the truth must be found, the celebration of genocide cease, for a new and more inclusive start, for a genuine community/democracy, to become possible in these states and throughout the country.

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There is now a broad willingness to look back at this without the fog of racism. The civil rights movement, the long and valiant protests of indigenous people, the election of Obama, the spirit (though often not the American practice) of the Bill of Rights, and many other movements, frequently unsung or denounced by the powerful, have brought us to this point...

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I have emphasized the Founding Amnesia of the United States about the dispossession and murder of indigenous people. See here, here, and here. As the movie "Lincoln" and the increasing recognition of the Emancipation Proclamation on its 150th anniversary reveals, the Founding Myth about slavery - that the Founding Fathers and often slave-owners were solely or even mainly concerned with human freedom - has been somewhat abated by recognition of the wrong of bondage.

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In Mankato, Minnesota as part of driving out the Dakota during the Civil War, the authorities wanted to hang 303 Dakota leaders. Lincoln limited the number to 38, still the largest military execution of so-called criminals in American history. No leader of the South in the Civil War - arguably the real thing who might have deserved hanging (I prefer defeat and an attempt at reconciliation which, despite Lincoln's real efforts, did not happen) - was executed.

Lincoln thought that by practicing mercy at Mankato - executing only 38, those whom he judged there to be evidence against, signing each order personally - he would lose the 1864 election because of racist hysteria in Minnesota. See here. Yet his wisdom in dealing with opponents (winning the war, but not striving to execute enemies) is one of the great examples in American history. That he succeeded in so limited a way at Mankato highlights the ferocity of racism toward indigenous people and his own participation in the great crime of ethnic cleansing and genocide.

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Lincoln was a great political leader in America. America was built on genocides. Lincoln's actions, ultimately sharply for the good on bondage, on the side of limiting evil about native americans, are marked by this.

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The Federal and state government then drove the Dakota out of Minnesota (they became the Lakota in South Dakota...). Today in Mankato, there is no memory of the indigenous people though, of course, the name Mankato, just as Arapaho Road in Denver or Arapaho county in Colorado signifies the vanished.

Naming for indigenous people, about which there is a big struggle with universities and sports teams across the country, elicits, often derogatorily, the vanished.

It is a sign of enthusiasm for ethnic cleansing (the owner of the Washington Redskins, particularly degraded, is unaware that Washington - the home of "the Great White Father" - is the center of dispossession, lying to, betrayal and murder of peoples and cordoning the remnant on reservations. He refers to the courage of shadowy football "braves"...

If Hitler had won World War II, would there today have been a Berlin soccer team nicknamed "the fighting {Warsaw} Jews" or "Warrior Roma"...?. See here.

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There is a statue in Mankato to Pocahantas (she married John Smith in New England - it is as nice and meaningful as the celebration of Thanksgiving, the indigenous people sharing food with the white settlers...

Where are the descendants of the 20 million or so (no one knows the exact number) indigenous people?

Where are the Dakota?

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There are less than one million in the United States now...

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The indigenous have been forced onto reservations. They have been deprived of their land, of their way of life, impoverished and often despised by the communities around them.

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In Colorado, the treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) honored hunting lands belonging to the Arapahoe and Cheyenne.

Three indigenous people, the Cherokees Lewis Ralston and John Beck and the Delaware Fall Leaf, discovered gold (h/t Don Hughes). They are unnamed on the State Capitol plaque celebrating this discovery or rather the American stealing of the gold. See here.

Settlers, prominently miners, swarmed into Colorado. The Federal government betrayed this treaty as it had so many others.

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The Federal government waged several aggressions - wars to steal the land from the people already there - in 1864. These battles are memorialized on this same plaque facing West from the statue of the anonymous soldier of the Civil War, the only four "battles" in Colorado, one of which is Sand Creek.

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In July 1864, Union soldiers murdered Lean Bear at his village. He was riding towards them holding the papers of peace he had signed in Washington. See here and here. He thought he was a friend of the soldiers. They gunned him down.

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The next month, some young indians slaughtered the Hungate family (two adults, two daughters). What they did was awful and no act of self-defense against soldiers or American aggression.

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To drive the Cheyenne and Arapaho out of Colorado, all indigenous people were demonized by the leadership in Denver. Chivington acted on the racism - he spoke repeatedly of the "Red Fiend" as did Ralph Byers in the Rocky Mountain News ("the red devils" was the latter's term of choice).

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Is this freedom-loving or supposedly beneficent (patriarchal - the "Great Father" as Evans refers to the President below), Christian activity?

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Change Montesequieu's famous indictment of bondage in book 15 of Spirit of the Laws: "We cannot imagine red men to be human, for if we imagine them to be human, the suspicion would arise that we are not Christians."

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Chivington used the phrase "Red fiend" as a projection on indigenous people. There were fiends at Sand Creek. They were commanded and led by John Chivington.

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Today, the Methodists - and other Protestant Churches (the World Council of Churches, for example) - have repudiated the Catholic doctrine of discovery. In the papal bull inter caetera (1493), the Pope divided the people and possessions of "discovered territories" between the King of Spain and the King of Portuagel (see here; h/t Andy Reid). In the settler state of America, Chief Justice Marshall of the Supreme Court adopted the same doctrine about the stealing of indigenous land in Johnson v. M'Intosh in 1823. It licensed theft, dispossession, and murder as the "rule of law" in America.

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The judgment on the Sand Creek massacre, an objective and decent judgment, came about only through the testimony of officers, Silas Soule and Joseph Cramer, who knew that these indigenous people had come under the protection of the US Government (Soule had attended the meeting of Black Kettle and others with Evans and Chivington at Camp Weld in Denver).

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The indigenous people had long been confronted, and increasingly, with a sea of settlers and white soldiers. Many resisted dispossession. Others tried to sign agreements and prevent or limit ethnic cleaning.

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Some who settled on land agriculturally and began to live like the whites, for instance, the Cherokee in Georgia, were removed by Congress and President Andrew Jackson - the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the later "trail of tears" for the Cherokee (the expulsions drove out five tribes including the the Chickasaw, the Choctaws and Creeks; only the Cherokee, having relied on the judicial system and then torn themselves apart by internal conflict, were driven along the Trail of Tears. H/t Paul Finkelman. See here).

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Resistance, particularly fighting the soldiers, was the way of self-defense and was made clear, in Indian Removal Act and Sand Creek (among other massacres), to be the only courageous course.

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The actions of the United States government are as heartbreaking as the amnesia in the mainstream (among many whites) is total. One cannot think well of Chivington or Byers or Evans or Thomas Jefferson or Andrew Jackson, if one recognizes that indigenous people are...people and that it was their land.

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A million Americans (out of 13 million) fought the removal from Georgia. They would have won in Congress but for the 3/5ths clause in the Constitution which gave the slave-owners 25% more seats in Congress, based on a shadow value for the people they owned and disenfranchised.(h/t Duncan Campbell)

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In the 72 years before the Civil War, there were 5 single term Presidents from the North (John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Fillmore, Buchanan, van Buren, Pierce - the last were abettors of bondage; some died in office and were replaced for the rest of their terms). They held office for 20 years.

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There were 6 two term Presidents, 5 from Virginia and Andrew Jackson, all from the South, all elected by shadow votes, counted as 3/5ths of a male slave, cast by their masters.

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That there was something evil and predatory about the American regime - and the American Constitution - is perhaps highlighted by the existence and this consequences of the 3/5th clause.

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The loudness of the celebration of Evans becomes tinny upon learning that Seward removed Evans because of Sand Creek.

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Even under Abraham Lincoln, the national government of the United States had waged a persistent "war of empire" (the phrase is Ari Kalman's, see The Misplaced Massacre) to dispossess and drive out indigenous people from the lands on which they were living (this occurred throughout the Continent and without a real respite - treaties were repeatedly signed but then broken).

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The war against bondage was a central feature of the Union effort in the Civil War. But as the celebration of the "Sand Creek battle" at the State Capitol in Denver reveals, the Union led by Lincoln fought for ethnic cleansing even as it fought to defeat bondage.

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Silas Soule, a soldier willing to fight "hostile indians" and a serious abolitionist (he participated in the rescue of Dr. John Doys who was captured by "Border Ruffians" in Missouri leading 13 men and women north to freedom). Soule argued fiercely with Chivington (both knew that these indigenous people had made peace) the night before the massacre; Chivington threatened to hang him. Soule wrote to Major Edward Wynkoop, former commander at Fort Lyon, that the murder of all the peaceful indians, all the ones that had settled with the United States, would launch a great war. He thought it would be a bad summer.

There were 25 years of war - including the defeat of Custer - until the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890.

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Soule's letter and testimony triggered the hearings (David Fridtjof Halaas and Gary L. Roberts, "Written in Blood: the Soule-Cramer Sand Creek Massacre Letters" Colorado Heritage, 2001). One week after the hearings, when he was working as a police officer, he was ambushed and murdered by two "Union" soldiers who had taken part in Sand Creek. His life had been threatened by Chivington. Though just married, he did expect of live.

One of the assassins - Charles Squier - was captured. His jail cell was left open and he escaped (he had friends higher up among the then Colorado administration...).

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Lieutenant James D. Connor, the man who captured Squier and also testified about Sand Creek, was found poisoned in his hotel room.

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It would take a Shakespeare to capture the initial darkness of Denver...

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One thinks today (and for a long time) that the Confederacy is wrongly celebrated in the South. South Carolina flies the flag of bondage at its State Capitol. A statue of Nathan Bedford Forrest, a slave-trader and the founder of the Ku Klux Klan, is still standing in Memphis, Tennessee. Today, there is a large movement against it.

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The following Huffington Post story marks the early February 2013 name changes by the Memphis City Council:

"The statue of Confederate fighter [sic] Nathan Bedford Forrest astride a horse towers above the Memphis park bearing his name. It's a larger-than-life tribute [sic] to the warrior still admired by many for fiercely defending the South in the Civil War – and scorned by others for a slave-trading past and ties to the Ku Klux Klan.

Though the bloodiest war on American soil was fought 150 years ago, racially tinged [sic] discord flared before its City Council voted this week to strip Forrest's name from the downtown park and call it Health Sciences Park. It also voted to rename Confederate Park as Memphis Park and Jefferson Davis Park as Mississippi River Park."

This protest, and the City Council's action, however, are not "racially tinged." They pit opponents of bondage and the Klan against people who, sadly, revere them. Forrest and Jefferson Davis deserve no glorification. The City Council did the right thing. See here and here.

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Protestors and the City Council rightly seek to make a new start for democracy - the recognition of everyone and their descendants, the welcoming of a diversity of people who each have human rights and are deserving, in a democracy, of mutual respect - in Tennessee.

No celebration is due to murderers.

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In its founding, Denver is no better.

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The truth has long been buried in Colorado about the so-called Indian wars.

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Evans hoped to become Senator from the new state of Colorado. Chivington, whom he assigned to lead the hundred day troops from Denver, hoped to become Brigadier-General through his "exploits" and be elected Congressman from Colorado. Byers promoted both through the Rocky Mountain News, and also sold a house to Evans, now a monument, the Evans-Byers house at 1310 Bannock. See here.

They all because initial trustees of the Colorado seminary...

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They were "thick as thieves" though the crime makes the comparison unfair to thieves (that they stole land from indigenous people is but a component...).

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Fighting the Confederacy, however, meant that most regular Union troops were diverted from Colorado in the summer of 1864 (Chivington had been a hero in fighting the Confederacy at the Battle of Gloretta - today Glorietta - in New Mexico in 1862 - h/t Flint Leverstock).

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Having no forces to use in the "Indian Wars," John Evans issued a proclamation (see the document below) raising troops from the citizens of Denver.

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Evans had no pay to give them. So he licensed them to steal any property from indigenous people and make it their own. This undoubtedly seemed to him, as a former Indian agent, consistent with the general American policies. The "Great Father in Washington," as Evans invoked him, presided over the cordoning off of peaceful indians on reservations. The Americans took all the land...

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But Evans' specific proclamation here created a great incentive for murder of any indigenous people, a la Chivington, they could attack and the stealing of anything.

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On August 11, 1864 (the second document below), Evans proclaimed:

"And further, as the only reward I am authorized to offer for such services, I hereby empower such citizens, or parties of citizens, to take captive, and hold to their own private use and benefit, all the property of said hostile Indians that they may capture, and to receive for all stolen property recovered from said Indians such reward as may be deemed proper and just therefor."

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The Denver leadership, following an American tradition, said "indians are thieves and murderers" and have no character. So who lives on stolen land, murdered the people, drove them out, cordoned them off (in Europe, they called such areas concentration camps, in South Africa, Bantustans, in the Occupied Territories, zones A, B and C...) and kept their names to mock their absence?

Must be the indians...

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At a certain point, Chivington, described in Soule's letter, lost control in the massacre and the mob killed and mutilated whoever they laid hands on, including babies (that none of those who participated in or ordered it were tried and executed for it mocks the American practice of "capital punishment").

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The promise of a "bounty" for stealing property was rightly one issue in the Federal hearings about Evans and Sand Creek, as was assigning Chivington to lead the troops.

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On the surface, there is some exoneration from Evans in the August 11th document. He distinguishes "friendly" or peaceful indians whom he urges to come in to the military settlements and "hostile" indians.

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Though it would be an anachronism to use the Tokyo war crimes tribunal as a formal law to assess Evans - the rule of law requires that laws be known to the people who are governed by them - the law draws an important moral distinction that those who might seek to extenuate him could try to use. The Japanese generals, who were tried and executed at Tokyo as war criminals, were charged because they had failed to warn publicly their troops against committing the crimes which the troops had carried out.

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Evans' June 27,1864 call to "friendly" indians below does appear to do that. If he had honored this distinction, that might extenuate Evans from the charge that he was directly responsible for the massacre at Sand Creek. This would not, however, be a reason for celebrating or naming things after him; it would be a reason for thinking that his actions, unlike Chivington's, were not depraved.

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As the Federal hearings noted, however, the incentive he chose to employ did the opposite; it licensed the barbarism of the Denver militia. Soule says in his letter that he could not imagine "white" men doing these atrocities. He might have referred to "Christian" "civilization." All of these terms are racist and opposite of the truth - genocide against indigenous people, slavery and stealing half of Mexico in the aggression of 1846 are all far from showing that settler capitalism of the United States was characterized by decent conduct or that these "Methodists" were somehow followers of Jesus.

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There is, as President Obama said in his Second Inaugural, a founding for some and a later development of the insight that "all men are created equal." This is America's greatness.

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But genocide and ethnic cleansing for most of American history are at least the equal of this. And to make, for all the descendants on this territory, a "more perfect union," much unsettling truth must be recognized.

A new start is possible but not with these names and memorials...

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Evans speaks of "killing and destroying hostile indians." He makes no distinction of civilian and brave (soldier). He thus licenses slaughter of all, as at Sand Creek.

"Now, therefore, I, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, do issue this my proclamation, authorizing all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my said call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also, to kill and destroy, as enemies of the country, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians.

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He calls for the slaughter - "to kill and destroy...wherever they may be found" - of all without distinction.

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Listen to his words from the second order which appear to differentiate some "friendly Indians," but then withdraws protection for innocents:

"Agents, interpreters, and traders will inform the friendly Indians of the plains that some members of their tribes have gone to war with the white people."

He appears to distinguish those who came in at Camp Weld from particular groups who were at war (defending themselves against the U.S. government's aggression; slaughtering settler families like the Hungates as opposed to defeating and killing Custer, however, is not extenuated by the justice of the cause).

But Evans then says the fatal words:

"The families of those who have gone to war with the whites must be kept away from among the friendly Indians." So women, children and the elderly among "hostile" indians were not off bounds for Evans as they were not off bounds in Chivington's massacre of pretended or imagined "hostiles" at Sand Creek.

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This document defies the laws of war and decency (see Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars, Alan Gilbert, Democratic Individuality, ch. 1). The two acts, committing aggression against the people of another state and slaughtering civilians, are barred under quite ancient understandings of the law and morality of war.

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Evans keeps innocents from "hostile" tribes from saving themselves or being saved. Even his patriarchal rhetoric about "protection" of the "Great Father" is a lie. The command is genocidal...

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Worse yet, the crime of war against civilians bars bombing "enemy" cities (for instance, the firebombing of Dresden). One cannot go out and kill noncombatants when one is in battle; Evans, however, would not protect even noncombatants whom he (and the US military and settlers) forced to leave their homes and come to the named forts and then, as at Sand Creek, resettled.

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Listen to his second Proclamation raising the militia, August 11, 1864:

"Now, therefore, I, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, do issue this my proclamation, authorizing all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my said call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also, to kill and destroy, as enemies of the country, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians."

Evans calls here to kill and destroy...whever they may be found, all such hostile Indians." And he refuses to allow those among them, even women, children and old men, to come in.

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Further as revealed in the document of the conference at Camp Weld in Denver which I will comment on in a subsequent post, Evans personally refused to make peace with the indigenous leaders who came in. He told them they had to make peace with the military (Chivington and Soule were at the conference). And when they did make peace with the officers, he sent Chivington to murder them.

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He could have followed what these indigenous leaders did with the military at Fort Lyon. To extenuate him, one would have to imagine that he did not, that he was completely ignorant that they were there, that he never informed Chivington to leave alone those who came to Fort Lyon and were sent to Sand Creek.

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A founder of University education in Colorado and Illinois must be made mentally incompetent when it comes to taking responsibility for the racist atrocities he ordered and oversaw. This is not, I am afraid, a plausible line of excuse.

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On June 27, 1864, Evans wrote, in his first Proclamation,

"Friendly Arapahoes and Cheyennes belonging on the Arkansas River will go to Major Colley, U. S. Indian agent at Fort Lyon, who will give them provisions, and show them a place of safety."

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But Major Wynkoop then actually made peace with them at Fort Lyon and settled them near the Fort. Wynkoop left Colorado afterwards (The little street named for Wynkoop in downtown Denver is unusually decently named; so are the monuments to Governor Ralph Carr who opposed Frankln Delano Roosevelt's cordoning of Japanese-Americans in concentration camps...).

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Major Scott Anthony, who then took command of Fort Lyon, assigned the indians to go to Sand Creek. In Evans's words from June 27th, he "show[ed] them a place of safety"...

That was why there were the American flag and peace flags over Black Kettle's tent as Soule testified. That was why two chiefs welcomed the soldiers - the soldiers are my friends, one said, as he saw the soldiers riding up...

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But Anthony collaborated with Chivington and participated in the slaughter. He betrayed his trust as much as Chivington.

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Here are the the three pivotal sentences of Evans' June 27th Proclamation:

"The object of this is to prevent friendly Indians from being killed through mistake. None but those who intend to be friendly with the whites must come to these places. The families of those who have gone to war with the whites must be kept away from among the friendly Indians."

The first sentence seems a clear warning beforehand against Sand Creek. Evans, one might have thought, would, first and foremost, have looked out to make sure that if friendly indians came in and if they were settled by Majors Wynkoop and Anthony, the troops he recruited from Denver would not butcher them.

But the last two sentences are incitement to murder innocents among the so-called "hostiles." As Sand Creek and sending out Chivington show, Evans meant the last two sentences and not the first. The Federal Commission was right to denounce him.

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Chivington had only the 100 days of the Denver militia's term to do an "exploit" and propel himself to Congress. Evans had presided over the use of the bodies of the Hungate family to motivate racism among then Denverites (in addition to the slaughter at Sand Creek, the "soldiers" took an infant off with them in wagon and then discarded him on the ground to die). They paraded in Denver with the cut off genitals of women which they had slung over their saddles (Evans and Byers knew of this, and said not a word of abhorrence or denunciation...).

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Evans wanted to drive out the indians both to "defend" Denver and because the railway was coming.

He knew it was toward the end of the Civil War (November 29, 1864 was the massacre).

He had to act swiftly as did Chivington.

He appointed Chivington to command the troops.

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Chivington wanted most to become Brigadier-General. He wanted to be a "hero." He proclaimed this slaughter the greatest victory in the history of Indian warfare. Byers echoed him in the December Rocky Mountain News:

"Among the brilliant feats of arms in Indian warfare, the recent campaign of our Colorado volunteers will stand in history with few rivals, and none to exceed it in final results. We are not prepared to write its history, which can only be done by some one who accompanied the expedition, but we have gathered from those who participated in it and from others who were in that part of the country, some facts which will doubtless interest many of our readers."

See here.

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Read Evans's call for "the hundred daysters" carefully. What Chivington did is pretty well what Evans was inciting. If one emphasizes only the distinction between friendly and hostile indians, the people who came to Camp Weld and Fort Lyon and Sand Creek, rightly sought and thought they had achieved peace and should "have been safe."

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But Evans refused to make peace with them at Camp Weld. And he sent out Chivington to slaughter them without distinction of combatant and noncombatant, of adult and child, of warrior and women, of armed young men and the elderly.

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Still, there is the shadow of a chance, in this document, for some extenuation (a Tokyo-like one) for Evans.

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There are other documents, however, which I will analyze in further posts. And the committees at Northwestern and DU will work on this cooperatively for the next year so more things will come to light.

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Here is the first:

PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY GOVERNOR JOHN EVANS, DENVER, JUNE 27, 1864

COLORADO SUPERINTENDENCY INDIAN AFFAIRS,

TO THE FRIENDLY INDIANS OF THE PLAINS:

Agents, interpreters, and traders will inform the friendly Indians of the plains that some members of their tribes have gone to war with the white people. They steal stock and run it off, hoping to escape detection and punishment. In some instances they have attacked and killed soldiers and murdered peaceable citizens. For this the Great Father is angry, and will certainly hunt them out and punish them, but he does not want to injure those who remain friendly to the whites. He desires to protect and take care of them. For this purpose I direct that all friendly Indians keep away from those who are at war, and go to places of safety. Friendly Arapahoes and Cheyennes belonging on the Arkansas River will go to Major Colley, U. S. Indian agent at Fort Lyon, who will give them provisions, and show them a place of safety. Friendly Kiowas and Comanches will go to Fort Larned, where they will be cared for in the same way. Friendly Sioux will go to their agent at Fort Laramie for directions. Friendly Arapahoes and Cheyennes of the Upper Platte will go to Camp Collins on the Cache la Poudre, where they will be assigned a place of safety and provisions will be given them.

The object of this is to prevent friendly Indians from being killed through mistake. None but those who intend to be friendly with the whites must come to these places. The families of those who have gone to war with the whites must be kept away from among the friendly Indians. The war on hostile Indians will be continued until they are all effectually subdued.

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Here is the second:

PROCLAMATION BY ORDER OF HON. JOHN EVANS
GOVERNOR, TERRITORY OF COLORADO
AUGUST 11, 1864

Having sent special messengers to the Indians of the plains, directing the friendly to rendezvous at Fort Lyon, Fort Larned, Fort Laramie, and Camp Collins for safety and protection, warning them that all hostile Indians would be pursued and destroyed, and the last of said messengers having now returned, and the evidence being conclusive that most of the Indian tribes of the plains are at war and hostile to the whites, and having to the utmost of my ability endeavored to induce all of the Indians of the plains to come to said places of rendezvous, promising them subsistence and protection, which, with a few exceptions, they have refused to do:

Now, therefore, I, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, do issue this my proclamation, authorizing all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my said call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also, to kill and destroy, as enemies of the country, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians. And further, as the only reward I am authorized to offer for such services, I hereby empower such citizens, or parties of citizens, to take captive, and hold to their own private use and benefit, all the property of said hostile Indians that they may capture, and to receive for all stolen property recovered from said Indians such reward as may be deemed proper and just therefor.

I further offer to all such parties as will organize under the militia law of the Territory for the purpose to furnish them arms and ammunition, and to present their accounts for pay as regular soldiers for themselves, their horses, their subsistence, and transportation, to Congress, under the assurance of the department commander that they will be paid.

The conflict is upon us, and all good citizens are called upon to do their duty for the defence of their homes and families.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great seal of the Territory of Colorado to be affixed this 11th day of August, A. D. 1864.

JOHN EVANS.

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